Aid for Africa and Latin America

Aide-Mémoire Samoré 07 02 1961

A day after his visit to Archbishop Dell’acqua, Cardijn had two more appointments.

Archbishop Sigismondi, Propaganda Fide

The first was with the Secretary of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, Archbishop Pietro Sigismondi, previously a Vatican diplomat and originally from Bergamo, the home diocese of Pope John XXIII.

The focus of this visit was the work of the JOC in Africa. As well as reporting on his trips to Africa, Cardijn thus sought Vatican assistance in placing the JOC “missionaries,” later called “extension workers,” whose task was to assist the development of the movement in the host countries.

Cardijn also insisted on the importance of the African JOC movements participating in the forthcoming Rio de Janeiro international council and he sought a grant for this purpose.

Archbishop Antonio Samoré, Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs

Cardijn’s second visit was to Archbishop Antonio Samoré, secretary of the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, effectively the Vatican’s foreign affairs office responsible for relations with other countries.

With the international council in Rio now less than a year away, Cardijn’s focus here was on Latin America. He requested a letter of support to be addressed to the Latin American bishops conference, CELAM, as well as further letters to Holy See representative offices all over Latin America.

He noted that Brazilian Bishop Helder Camara had committed to funding all hosting expenses for the international council but that a special fund had been created to finance the travel of other Latin American delegates to Brazil.

And a handwritten addition in Cardijn’s handwriting calls for a “word to HE Sigismondi.” Presumably, Cardijn wanted Samoré to add his support to Cardijn’s requests for aid to Africa as well.

All in all, another advocacy masterclass from Cardijn, in effect seeking to make Samoré and Sigismondi (and hence the Holy See) stakeholders in the development of the JOC in Africa and Latin America.

SOURCES

Pietro Sigismondi (Wikipedia)

Archbishop Pietro Sigismondi (Catholic Hierarchy)

Antonio Samoré (Wikipedia)

Antonio Cardinal Samoré (Catholic Hierarchy)

French original

Joseph Cardijn, Aide-Mémoire – Mgr Sigismondi 07 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

Joseph Cardijn, Aide-Mémoire – Mgr Samoré 07 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

English translation

Joseph Cardijn, Aide-Mémoire – Mgr Sigismondi 07 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

Joseph Cardijn, Aide-Mémoire – Mgr Samoré 07 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

Talking to students at the Gregorian

06 02 1961 Gregorian

As well as his visit to Archbishop Dell’Acqua on 6 February, Cardijn also addressed students and professors at the Pontifical Gregorian University – as he had done on so many previous visits to Rome since at least the early 1930s.

On this occasion, Australian seminarian, Richard (Dick) Buchhorn, appears to have assisted and collaborated with Cardijn, by typing up his notes for the talk in English as well as adding a few comments of his own about the audience, who would include “….Africans, Scotchmen, Irish” and no doubt others (unfortunately illegible on the copy of the document).

They may have had “contact with the Y.C.W.” but still have “superficial knowledge” or even “know practically nothing” about the movement.

“Most think about Y.C.W. as an optional Parish organisation (one among many), an extra, less important than student, family, professional, adult organisations,” Buchhorn warns, highlighting a growing trend to regard the YCW as just one of a range of options.

“They will think about Y.C.W. as a technique, recipe, blueprint, method which may or may not ‘work’ successfully in parish life.”

“Hence little or no idea of formation, of apostolate starting from concrete facts,” Buchhorn notes. “Most will not sense the need for the priest to know his people, to share their life, their culture. (This particularly for Asian and African priests, who, during their studies here in Europe, become very “western” in their thought, habits, etc.)”

He therefore suggests that the “predominant THEME should be THE PASTORAL CONCERN OF THE PRIEST for young workers” who feel “generally abandoned, ignored” and at a “crucial period of their life” yet are “full of latent generosity.”

Hence they “must be formed to live a fully Christian life.”

“This formation depends on the priest, who must

– know them “Cognosco oves meas” (Translation: “I know my sheep”)

– seek them “Oves perditas” (Translation: “Lost sheep”)

– form them “Pasce…” (Translation: “Feed”)

in and through their daily life, through action, doctrine, sacraments

through a true elite in and for the true masses

“This task falls to every priest, even if there were no Y.C.W.

It is of vital importance for – the priest

– working youth

– their milieu

– family

– factory

– places of leisure

– the Church

– the world.”

“In this way the challenge, the responsibility, is thrown on to the listeners in an immediate way,” Buchhorn concludes.

SOURCE

Richard Buchhorn, Note for Cardijn 06 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

A visit to Archbishop Dell’Acqua

Aide-Mémoire Dell'Acqua 06 02 1961

With the PCLA plenary meeting now over, Cardijn maximises his trip to Rome with a visit on 6 February to Archbishop Angelo Dell’Acqua, who plays the role of Substitute at the Holy See.

As always, Cardijn is extremely well prepared with a list of topics he wishes to report on, difficulties he wants to discuss as well as a series of specific, concrete requests for aid.

Africa

So he begins by presenting a report of his recent trip to Africa for the Pan-African YCW meeting in Lomé, Togo from 18 December, I960 to 2 January, 1961. He notes the absence of delegates from Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), which implies perhaps a lack of cooperation from local Church authorities that he wishes to redress.

And he reports on his earlier trip to several African countries in mid-1960, which was interrupted by events in Rwanda.

He particularly notes the arrival of “jocist missionaries” in Africa, no doubt wishing to ensure that they are welcomed by local bishops and churches.

International Council, Rio de Janeiro

Secondly, Cardijn offers information on the forthcoming Second International Council of the YCW to be held in Rio de Janeiro in October 1961. Five continental preparatory meetings will take place in the lead up to the Council with representatives from 90 countries expected to attend, truly a phenomenal achievement.

And he requests a letter of encouragement from the Holy See addressed to himself and/or the IYCW president, Romeo Maione, in order to help in the promotion and fundraising for the event.

He also requests letters to the representatives of the Holy See in each country in an endeavour to gain their cooperation.

And finally he asks for “honorary distinctions for international leaders” who are about to end their service to the YCW.

Vatican II

Nor is Vatican II absent from his thoughts. Thus he emphasises the “importance of a declaration by the Council on the need for the apostolate of the laity” and its promotion and development.

Encyclical for the 70th Anniversary of Rerum Novarum

Cardijn also returns to his request to Pope John in 1960 for an encyclical to commemorate the 70th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical, Rerum Novarum, and to update its teaching. He cites the teaching of Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo Anno in 1931:

“a / on the importance of the workers’ apostolate: “The first and immediate apostles of workers will be workers”

b / on the importance of the apostolate of young workers: ‘I can already see, to the great joy of my heart, the tight ranks of young workers going to conquer their young working brothers and sisters’.

c / great progress over recent years

d / and ardent hope that this progress will continue.”

World Council of Churches

He also draws attention to the forthcoming 3rd Ecumenical Assembly of Churches scheduled to take place in New Delhi, India, from 18 November – 6 December, 1961.

Finally, he requests a private audience with John XXIII although it’s not clear if he is hoping for this immediately or on his next trip to Rome.

It’s another Cardijn masterclass of advocacy.

SOURCES

Angelo Dell’Acqua (Wikipedia)

Angelo Cardinal Dell’Acqua (Catholic Hierarchy)

Aide-Mémoire Mgr Dell’Acqua 06 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

Aide-Memoire Archbishop Angelo Dell’Acqua 06 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

The PCLA launches an enquiry

Aide-Mémoire Dell'Acqua 06 02 1961

As the Rome meeting progresses, the Prep Com announces on 4 February that it wishes to launch an enquiry into the history and work of the lay movements and organisations around the world.

As Mgr Glorieux explains in a separate note, the Commission is looking to develop a better understanding of how “Catholic Action” movements operate in various countries.

In effect, it appears to be aiming to develop a typology of the various movements.

As usual, Cardijn sees this as a great opportunity to present the JOC and its methods.

SOURCE

French original

Commission pontificale préparatoire sur l’apostolat des laïcs 04 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

English translation

Preparatory Commission on Lay Apostolate 04 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

Please send more copies!

Glorieux - Fiévez 01 02 1961

Cardijn is now in Rome and the latest meeting of the PCLA is already under way.

It appears that at least one of Cardijn’s preparatory notes has hit the mark with a request for more copies of Note 4, “Priests and lay people in the apostolate” to be sent to Rome.

Thus, on 1 February, PCLA secretary, Mgr Achille Glorieux writes on Cardijn’s behalf to Marguerite Fiévez.

“Mgr Cardijn, whom we are happy to have with us, has asked me to write to you,” Glorieux begins, “a few days ago we received the double document (I mean, with the part also translated into Latin) from Monsignor,”

“It would be useful for us to receive 45 (forty-five) copies, in order to give them to our Members and Consultors,” he asked.

Fiévez responded quickly, sending back the documents by express post on 6 February.

SOURCE

French original

Mgr Glorieux – Marguerite Fiévez 01 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

Joseph Cardijn, Prêtres et laïcs dans l’apostolat (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

English translation

Mgr Glorieux – Marguerite Fiévez 01 02 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

Joseph Cardijn, Priests and lay people in the apostolate (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

Back to Rome

On 29 January, Cardijn left for Rome for the second plenary meeting of the PCLA.

As usual, he sought to maximise the trip, staying on for several extra days until 12 February in order to meet other Vatican officials and contacts.

Interestingly, Marguerite Fiévez records Cardijn’s visit as being from 30 January until 10 February. Presumably the extra days recorded on the invoice from the retreat centre where he stayed were arrival, rest and departure days.

And who would begrudge Cardijn a day’s rest after his packed recent travel and work schedule?

SOURCE

Invoice (Archives Cardijn 1301)

Note by Marguerite Fiévez (Archives Cardijn 1300)

More papers to read

1961 01 017 - PCLA Cv8

Cardijn’s now back in Brussels after his long, exhausting trip to Africa. No time to rest, however, as on 27 January 1961 the PCLA sent out a new packet of documents – mostly in Latin – in preparation for the forthcoming meeting of the Commission.

This meeting is slated to commence on 31 January.

SOURCE

Archives Cardijn 1584

Joos ready to meet Cardijn in Brussels

Joos - Cardijn 27 01 1961

And on 27 January 1961, Mgr Joos wrote to Cardijn himself, responding to Cardijn’s request for assistance on 14 December 1960.

“A very big thank you for your letter,” Mgr Joos wrote.

The translation and re-reading that Cardijn had requested was “no bother at all.”

“What I fear most is betraying your thought when you entrust me with documents to check,” Joos wrote. “Let me tell you how much I once again admired your deep sense of the Church.”

Clearly, however, Cardijn wanted further discussion or collaboration.

“I would be happy to come and see you in BRUSSELS whenever possible,” Joos offered.

French original

Mgr Désiré Joos – Cardijn 27 01 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

English translation

Mgr Désiré Joos – Cardijn 27 01 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

36 Belgians in the Prep Coms

La Libre Belgique 19 01 1961

The Belgian paper, La Libre Belgique reported on 19 January 1961 that 36 Belgians, including of course Cardijn, had been appointed to the various preparatory commissions for the coming Second Vatican Council.

Others who were close to Cardijn, the JOC and/or other Specialised Catholic Action movements included:

Cardinal Jozef-Ernest Van Roey of Malines-Brussels, Cardijn’s own archbishop and a long-standing supporter, but now aged 87;

Bishop Emiel-Jozef De Smedt of Bruges, a dynamic young bishop (aged 52) who had worked with the VKAJ, the Flemish female JOC, and whose sister Livine, had been a fulltime worker for the VKAJ who had also helped launch the JOC in Germany;

Fr Bernard Botte osb, a Benedictine liturgist, who was prominent in the liturgical reform movement;

Fr Lucien Cerfaux, a Louvain theologian, New Testament scholar and expert in Paulinian theology, who had been advisor to Cardijn and the JOC during the late 1940s.

But others less sympathetic to Cardijn included the ambitious young auxiliary bishop of Malines-Brussels, Leon-Joseph Suenens.

A notable omission from the preparatory commissions was Mgr Gerard Philips, the Louvain theologian and author of an influential book Le rôle du laïcat dans l’Eglise, published in French in 1954, and in English as The Role of the Laity in the Church in 1955.

SOURCES

Archives JOCI

Cardinal Jozef-Ernest Van Roey (Catholic Hierarchy)

Bishop Emiel-Jozef De Smedt (Catholic Hierarchy)

Bernard Botte osb (Liturgical Leaders)

Stefan Gigacz, The liturgical movement and Catholic Action (Cardijn Research)

Lucien Cerfaux (Encyclopedia.com)

Lucien Cerfaux (Wikipedia.fr)

The work continues

Joos - Fiévez 19 01 1961

Even during Cardijn’s absence in Africa, work continues back in Belgium to prepare his submissions for the PCLA.

On 19 January 1961, Tournai vicar-general, Mgr Désiré Joos, writes to Marguerite Fiévez in response to Cardijn’s earlier request to assist him with the drafting and translation into Latin of his documents.

“I tried to send you a few suggestions for correction and translation as quickly as possible,” he wrote.

“It’s always awkward to put on someone else’s boots! I hope I have not betrayed anything,” he added apologetically.

“My apologies that the Latin is not typed up; we just didn’t have time.”

SOURCE

Original French

Mgr Désiré Joos – Fiévez 19 01 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)

English translation

Mgr Désiré Joos – Fiévez 1901 1961 (Joseph Cardijn Digital Library)